World of Media-2021. Journal of Russian Media and Journalism Studies. Issue №4.

The issue was published in 2021 by the Faculty of Journalism, Lomonosov Moscow State University.



Azeem, A., Hunter, J. A., & Ruffman, T. (2021). Royally represented or royally shafted? Effect of positive and negative captions and ideological beliefs on readers’ evaluations of Kate Middleton and Meghan Markle // World of Media. Journal of Russian Media and Journalism Studies, 4: 5-32

We conducted a randomized controlled experiment to investigate the role of descriptive captions (positively and negatively worded) and ideological beliefs (Right Wing Authoritarianism and Social Dominance Orientation) on viewers’ evaluations of two popular British Royal family members namely Meghan Markle and Kate Middleton. Participants included 300 undergraduate students from Dunedin, New Zealand who were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions: (1) Pro-Kate, (2) Anti-Kate, (3) Pro-Meghan or (4) AntiMeghan captions accompanying the parallel images of these Royal members. We also included several distractor variables about other Royal family members and traditions. Outcomes were recorded as evaluations of six royal members (Charles, Diana, William, Harry, Kate, and Meghan). We found no significant effect of caption manipulation on outcome evaluations of Meghan and Kate. However, social dominance negatively correlated with Meghan and Harry whereas authoritarianism positively correlated with ratings of Charles. Our results indicate that a one-off exposure to biased media regarding celebrities may not significantly alter audience’s evaluations of them, but ideological beliefs may influence this process, nonetheless.

Key words: Biased media, biased picture captions, SDO, RWA, Royal Family

Received: 14.10.21

Accepted: 10.12.21


Srinivasan, M., Jishnu D., & Shamala R. (2021). COVID-19 and online education: Digital inequality and other dilemmas of rural students in accessing online education during the pandemic // World of Media. Journal of Russian Media and Journalism Studies, 4: 34-54

It is widely assumed among academicians that the COVID-19 pandemic has negative implications for the education of school students. However, institutions tried to balance that limitation by using online education, and there exist some inequalities among students. Most of the studies conducted during COVID-19 on online education focused on urban school students and their access to online education. In particular, rural school students and their online education remain an open question. Twenty in-depth interviews with rural student respondents determine the fundamental problems and challenge the rural school students’ face in online education during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. The study identifies six major problems of rural students: inadequate technology, unacquainted academic atmosphere, digital disconnect, physical well-being, the distractions inherent with the medium, and digital illiteracy. The identified constraints draw inferences to a critical concept in online learning that is digital inequality. Digital inequality refers to the disparity in the access, distribution of technology, information because of various socio-economic and cultural factors. The study also discusses the suggestions of rural students regarding the betterment of online education. The recommendations from the rural students include providing appropriate technological infrastructure, facilitating technical assistance and providing a convenient academic atmosphere. The suggestions are pointing towards the idea of digital inclusion that is vital in online education. Digital inclusion is defined as the ability of individuals or groups of people to access and use information and communication technologies. It is not only about access in a broader sense the opportunities of using innovative hardware and software technology, content and services, getting proper digital literacy pieces of training and the effective use of these services. The findings of the study will help to bridge the disparities in online education. These findings will help the academic community to identify the needs of rural children. It will help build infrastructure for online learning and give extensive support to the school children of rural communities. These findings are also vital for the communication scholars as the disparity in the distribution of information and knowledge is a prime concern for them.

Key words: COVID-19, online education, rural students, problems, solutions, digital inequality, digital inclusion

Received: 09.10.21

Accepted: 13.12.21

Wilson, J., Onuekwe, C., Abubakar, A.A., Owili, C., & Okoro-Nwanja, H. (2021). Information sources, knowledge and compliance to COVID-19 safety protocol in Borno State, Nigeria // World of Media. Journal of Russian Media and Journalism Studies, 4: 55-82

Borno State, Nigeria has experienced active COVID-19 with quite a number of cases and mortalities. The extensive global campaign to create awareness about the pandemic and safety measures through various stakeholders appeared to have worked, especially when it became obvious that people in Borno keyed into safety protocols and observed the lockdown. They wore face masks, routinely applied hand sanitizers and handwashing in public places. It was observed, at some points however, there was obvious nonadherence to these protocols. Therefore, this study examines adherence to COVID-19 safety protocol issues in the state. Could the noncompliance be by those not aware or knowledgeable about the pandemic? Are there issues with the sources of information? The objectives of the study are to determine: the sources of information/knowledge on COVID-19; the effectiveness of the sources of information/knowledge on COVID-19; level of compliance to COVID-19 preventive/safety measures, and to identify challenges in complying with COVID-19 safety/preventive measures. The study used knowledge, attitude and practice theory employed survey method as well as convenience and purposive sampling techniques to select 2949 respondents across three LGAs in the state. The study found that people are aware and knowledgeable about the pandemic. The mass media, especially radio are the major sources of information. The noncompliance to COVID-19 safety protocol is largely due lack of fund to purchase and use face mask and hand sanitizer. It concludes that there are diverse sources of knowledge and information with poor compliance to the safety protocols in Borno State.

Key words: COVID-19, Borno, safety protocol, compliance

Received: 10.09.21

Accepted: 30.11.21