World of Media-2021. Journal of Russian Media and Journalism Studies. Issue №2.

The issue was published in 2021 by the Faculty of Journalism, Lomonosov Moscow State University.



Jamil, S., Sohal., P. (2021) Reporting under fear and threats: The deadly cost of being a journalist in Pakistan and India // World of Media. Journal of Russian Media and Journalism Studies, 2: 5-33.

The journalists’ right to perform their watchdog role and to do their routine jobs without fear of being killed, kidnapped, harassed, and attacked is a topic of utmost importance for freedom of the media and freedom of expression. However, in the past decade, journalists’ killings across the globe indicate that journalism is no more a safe profession. Noticeably, the Asia-Pacific region is the third worst violator of media freedom in the world. While the level of media freedom and journalists’ safety is not better in the Middle East and the North African regions, the Asia-Pacific region stands out because it is home to the two of the top ten worst countries for journalists’ killings over the past 25 years, namely: Pakistan and India. Therefore, drawing on the system theory, this study aims to investigate the journalists’ lived experiences of diverse safety risks in Pakistan and India. To accomplish this aim, this study uses the qualitative methods of document reviews and in-depth interviews. Besides, this study uses thematic analysis to analyse the gathered data. The analyses of journalists’ lived experiences of safety risks reveal a stark systemic failure to protect them and safeguard their right to freedom of expression in these two countries.

Key words: Journalism practice, safety risks, journalists’ lived experiences, the Pakistani journalists, the Indian journalists, system theory

Received: 20.03.21

Accepted: 20.05.21


Simons, G., Manoilo, A. (2021) The what, how and why of fake news: An overview // World of Media. Journal of Russian Media and Journalism Studies, 2: 35-55.

This article examines the nature of the origin, definitions and functional principles of so-called fake news – reports that are deliberately false in nature which can create a stir in society around a non-existent informational case born of the same news source. In combination with viral technologies and mechanisms of distribution in the media and social networks, fake news in modern political campaigns is becoming a dangerous tool for influencing mass consciousness of societies. The main task of fake news in modern political campaigns and processes is interception of the political agenda, with its subsequent closure to the news feed generated by the fake news itself, as well as creation of general excitement around the given news story. This present article seeks to review and analyse the academic debates on the what (definition), how (operationalization) and why (motivation) questions pertaining to the fake news phenomena. These aspects are then combined to generate the beginnings of creating a conceptual taxonomy to understand this highly topical and emotive concept.

Key words: Fake news, deception, perception, information war, digital journalism

Received: 13.04.21

Accepted: 01.06.21

Ugwuoke, J. C., Erubami, J. A. (2021) Old war, new battleground: Deconstructing the potency of social media for community engagement in Nigeria’s human rights advocacy efforts // World of Media. Journal of Russian Media and Journalism Studies, 2: 56-74.

Although the need to guarantee human rights has been long acknowledged, efforts towards their full realization seem limited to the sole reliance on the conventional top-down approach to development. However, current development discourse emphasizes the centrality of people’s involvement in social development, such as human rights promotion, and the social media seem to hold considerable prospects in the actualization of this goal. Using a survey of 1,000 respondents drawn from states across Nigeria, this study investigates how new media technologies, such as social media, are shifting focus from the sole reliance on the mainstream media and influencing public involvement in human rights promotion in Nigeria. Findings showed that the social media have engendered community-wide engagements of people in efforts aimed at reducing cases of human rights violation in Nigeria, as people do not only get exposed to human rights issues on the social media, but also participate in their discussion and promotion. Overall, using the social media for human rights advocacy was significantly associated with respondents’ gender (.528**), education (.674**), perception (.753**), and social media exposure (.421**). Hence, there is the need for stakeholders to leverage the potentials of the social media in the promotion of people’s fundamental rights.

Key words: Civil liberty, development advocacy, media perception, social change, technoactivism, Web 2.0

Received: 15.02.21

Accepted: 29.05.21

Vikhrova, O., Hradziushka, A., Muravyova, O., Alekyan, M., Akhmedova, N. (2021) Information support of the Eurasian integration: The image of the EAEU in the mainstream media of the member states // World of Media. Journal of Russian Media and Journalism Studies, 2: 75-104.

Mass media, as the main tool for information support of integration processes of any regional economic association, are designed to ensure the internal stability of the Eurasian Economic Union, without which it is impossible to strengthen its position on the international stage. In this article, through the analysis of news content of the mainstream broadcasters and print and online media of the member states, it was identified, which thematical components of the image of the Eurasian Economic Union, affecting the perception of the young regional association by population, and to what extent they are currently available to mass audience in Russia, Belarus, Armenia, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. The study showed that the information support of the Eurasian integration, unregulated for five years and transferred to the management of the media themselves, led to that the main topics as of Q4 2019 were: meetings of the leaders of the EAEU states, legislative regulation, as well as the prospects for the development of the relations between the Union countries. At the same time, the vast majority of materials are depersonalized information, rather than personalized materials that illustrate the benefits of integration for the public. All this leads to the formation of information apathy to the integration issues both in society and on the part of the journalists themselves.

Key words: Eurasian Economic Union, Eurasian integration, information policy of the EAEU, image of the EAEU, Eurasian integration in mass media

Received: 13.04.21

Accepted: 04.06.21